Representative Past Projects include:

Quality Assurance Services for the Fresno Asthmatic Children's Environment Study (or FACES)
T&B Systems provided external quality assurance review for the ARB-funded Fresno Asthmatic Children's Environment Study (FACES) performed by the University of California, Berkeley (UCB). FACES is investigating the effect that air pollution has on asthmatic children. The study includes an extensive air quality monitoring including two mobile vans, indoor and outdoor exposure monitoring at subjects residences, and routine monitoring of health data, including lung function. T&B Systems personnel are responsible for managing the QA effort and performing external QA review of all aspects of the study. This included external systems audits of spirometry measurements, health questionnaires, ambient air monitoring, laboratory analysis of samples, and data processing and management of all collected data. They are also responsible for reviewing all SOPs used for the project and maintaining the project's QA Plan.


External Quality Assurance Oversite for the Southern California Particle Center and Supersite
T&B Systems provided external quality assurance oversite for the Southern California Particle Center and Supersite (SCPCS). The overall objective SCPCS is to bring together outstanding scientists from the leading universities in Southern California, including USC and UCLA, to identify and conduct high priority research to better understand the effects of particulate matter (PM) and ensure protection of public health. As the external auditor, T&B Systems personnel are responsible for a number of QA functions, including review of the Center's quality management plan, review of participants' quality management project plans (QMPP) and standard operating procedures (SOP), system audits of data collection efforts, data processing/management efforts, and conducting system and performance audits of the Particle Instrumentation Unit (PIU), the "Supersite" element of the Center. Over fifteen individual particulate and health related studies are being reviewed under this contract.


Operations Support for Payette River Cloud Seeding Project
T&B Systems obtained both surface and upper air meteorological measurements in support of a cloud seeding program in the Payette River watershed in southwestern Idaho. Rawinsonde observations using state-of-the-art GPS wind finding technology are being made during winter storms to use for the targeting of aircraft and ground-based seeding efforts in order to maximize the areal impacts.


Weekday/Weekend PM Nitrate Observations
As part of a particulate nitrate study in Southern California (winter 2002), T&B Systems was responsible for taking meteorological and air quality balloon soundings. Ozone aloft as well as temperature, relative humidity and winds were measured during particulate episodic conditions. The project was sponsored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and conducted under the auspices of the Desert Research Institute.


Las Vegas Valley Carbon Monoxide Saturation Study
T&B Systems conducted a study of the carbon monoxide (CO) levels in the Las Vegas Valley of Nevada during the winter of 2001 - 2002. The purpose of the study was to identify geographic patterns of CO concentrations and to determine if the routine Clark County CO monitoring station locations are representative of areas that experience the higher levels. The network consisted of 63 sites operating continuously, supplemented by a van custom-equipped with a suite of air quality monitors that operated during periods when higher CO concentrations were likely to occur. The CO monitors utilized had never been operated in this type of study but proved to be very well suited for "fence post" deployment as well as being very accurate, reliable and easily operated. This project was sponsored by the Clark County Department of Air Quality Management.


Satellite Site Operations for the California Regional PM10/PM2.5 Air Quality Study (CRPAQS)
T&B Systems participated in a large-scale monitoring program for the California Air Resources Board (ARB) in which we established and operated a network of fine-particulate filter samplers, portable nephelometers, and hydrocarbon canister samplers. Over fifty sites located throughout California comprised the Satellite network. Over 100 filter particulate samplers and 25 continuous light-scattering monitors were operated for a 14-month period beginning in December 1999. This network supplemented the standard monitoring program routinely carried out by the ARB and local agencies. More intensive measurements were conducted in the fall and winter of 2000-2001 during periods forecast to experience heavy particulate loading. Over the course of the project, more than 9,000 filter samples were exposed. Data validation activities and reporting are currently ongoing. T&B Systems was recently notified that we were selected, from a number of qualified bidders, to perform a set of analyses tasks associated with this study.


Quality Assurance for the California Regional PM10/PM2.5 Air Quality Study (CRPAQS) and the Central California Ozone Study (CCOS)
The California Regional PM10/PM2.5 Air Quality Study (CRPAQS) was a multi-year program of meteorological and air quality monitoring, emission inventory development, data analysis, and air quality simulation modeling with an overall budget of more than $25 million. Monitoring for CRPAQS occurred between November 1999 and February 2001. Taking advantage of the CRPAQS effort, a second study, the Central California Ozone Study (CCOS) was conducted during the summer of 2000. The major objective of CCOS was to characterize conditions over the complete summer period, with an emphasis on periods with high ozone levels, using both project-specific data and routine observations. T&B Systems personnel were responsible for managing the external quality assurance program for the entire measurement and data processing effort for both studies. Included in the effort were extensive surface and upper air meteorological audits of a wide range of sensors. These sensors included standard surface measurements and a wide range of radar wind and RASS profilers, sodars and rawinsonde systems. An extensive air quality monitoring network was also established, with many sites operating state-of-the-art and prototype air monitoring equipment. For the two studies, over 30 meteorological monitoring sites (surface and upper air), 110 air quality monitoring sites, and 5 aircraft were audited. Combined, over 700 monitoring and measurement systems were audited, many of them twice during the study. T&B personnel conducted 90% of the audits. Sponsored by the State of California Air Resources Board.


Fall 2000 Saturation Monitoring Operations for CRPAQS
T&B Systems established and operated a particularly dense saturation network of nephelometers and particulate samplers in and around the town of Corcoran, California to measure the impact of crop harvesting activities on local air quality. The network consisted of 25 nephelometer sites mostly deployed within a 100 sq-km area. Light scattering was measured continuously and 5-minute averaging intervals stored with a 94 percent valid-data capture. There were 11 particulate sampling sites at which 23 filters were exposed daily during the Fall season of 2000. A total of 780 valid samples were obtained resulting in a 92 percent data capture. T&B members were responsible for developing the program's overall Quality Assurance Plan and performed audits of all the field monitoring elements.


Winter 2000/2001 Saturation Monitoring Operations for CRPAQS
T&B Systems conducted PM2.5 saturation monitoring during the winter of 2000/2001 in the Central Valley for the California Air Resources Board (ARB). The Satellite Network Annual measurements described earlier were supplemented by additional sites and more time-resolved measurements during periods when high particulate loading was forecast. During December 2000 and January 2001, particulate samples (56) were taken daily at 25 locations based on an operational forecast issued the prior afternoon. A total of 276 filters were successfully exposed in this manner. Fourteen additional nephelometers were deployed and continuous light scattering measurements were obtained to complement the annual network. T&B Systems made balloon-borne aloft measurements of temperature, humidity, and winds (rawinsonde) from two locations as well. Data capture rates for each component of the study were greater than 95 percent. T&B Systems together with Parsonís Engineering was responsible for developing the program's overall Quality Assurance Plan and performed audits of all the field monitoring elements.


Central California Ozone Study (CCOS) Summer 2000 Field Study
T&B Systems was a major participant in a regional field monitoring program sponsored by the ARB which occurred during the summer ozone season of 2000. Our major tasks were the establishment and operation of three air-quality monitoring sites (ozone and NOy), three sodar (upper air) sites, and two sites from which balloon-borne ozone and meteorological soundings were made. We were also responsible for a variety of supplemental measurements and support activities such as carbonyl and hydrocarbon sampling. T&B Systems was responsible for developing the program's overall Quality Assurance Plan and performed audits of all the field monitoring elements. Subject to final evaluation, data capture rates were estimated to be 90+,85+, and 95+ percent for surface air-quality, sodar, and ozonesonde measurements, respectively.


Central California Ozone Study (CCOS) Analyses
T&B Systems was selected to lead an analyses team with the task of providing a "fast-track" analysis of the meteorological and air quality experience during the 2000 ozone season in Central California. The major objective of the study is to characterize conditions over the complete summer period, with an emphasis on periods with high ozone levels, using both project-specific data and routine observations. Timely characterization of the data is needed to provide information for use in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) State Implementation Plan (SIP) update for ozone.


Fourmile Hill Geothermal Power Plant EIR and Permitting
T&B Systems prepared the environmental air quality impact assessment for a geothermal power generating plant in northern California. This will be the first development tapping into a geothermal resource located at Glass Mountain on properties administered by the U.S. Forest Service and U.S. Bureau of Land Management. Air quality impacts from all phases of the project from exploration; power plant, transmission line and steam field development; and operations were evaluated. Approval was granted for the project in 2002. We are currently assisting the developer, Calpine Corporation, in obtaining drilling permits for well tests. T&B Systems had previously conducted baseline monitoring at Fourmile Hill and other candidate sites in the area for Unocal and Cal Energy as well as for Calpine (see below).


Glass Mountain Geothermal Resource Area Baseline Monitoring
T&B Systems established and operated a network of meteorological stations to obtain baseline measurements for an air quality impact assessment of a geothermal power generating plant in Northern California. The project area is remote and in complex terrain accessible only by over-the-snow vehicles in the winter, and completely lacking in commercial power and communications. Despite the remoteness and relative isolation of the area, throughout the 1990's we successfully carried out monitoring for three developers in this area (Calpine, Cal Energy, and Unocal), and ultimately assessed the air quality impacts for the Calpine Fourmile Hill Project EIR/EIA (see above).


Analysis of the San Joaquin Valley Meteorological Environment During High PM10 Loading
The characteristics of the particulate measurements in the San Joaquin Valley during the 1988-1993 period were defined. Spatial and temporal variations in airborne particulate were described. The influences of meteorological factors on particulate matter concentrations were investigated, five conceptual models were described and case studies presented. A summary of routine surface and aloft measurements in the Valley was given and the adequacy of the network of measurements for defining important meteorological features evaluated. Results of this study were used to design the meteorological network employed in the Integrated Monitoring (IMS95) field program. This project (completed) demonstrates our capability to examine large amounts of air-quality and meteorological data and develop a comprehensive field program that serves to fill the gaps in our knowledge.


Monitoring in Ozone Transport Corridors
T&B Systems was responsible for the design and execution of a field program to measure ozone and meteorological parameters that has contributed to a better understanding of ozone transport in previously identified transport corridors in Southern California. Eight sites were established for a five-month period at remote locations, three at elevated sites for the purpose of providing representative measurements aloft. Hourly and six-minute averaged data were transmitted daily to a central computer where the data was subject to immediate quality checking. The field study was followed up by an analysis of those measurements along with data from the routine monitoring network and other supplementary sources. The frequency of transport from the South Coast Air Basin and San Joaquin Valley into the Mojave Desert and relative contribution of local sources to ozone exceedances was examined.


the Health Effects Institute - External Quality Assurance Audits
T&B Systems personnel conducted independent quality assurance audits of three health studies being funded by the Health Effects Institute. The studies are looking at the relationship between air pollution and human health. Two of the studies were performed by the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston. The first study evaluated the relationship between stationary air quality monitoring stations and personal air quality exposure by having subjects carry personal monitors with them over a two-week period during summer and winter months. Parameters monitored include O3, NO2, SO2, PM2.5, EC/OC, and elements. Audits of this project included a review of monitoring procedures, data processing, data management, and laboratory operations. The second study is looked at the relationship between cardiac events recorded by implanted cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) and air pollution concentrations, and included audits of data management procedures, concentrating on the abstraction of ICD data from hospital records. T&B Systems personnel also conducted audits of a third study conducted in the Netherlands investigating the relationship between personal, household, and regional particulate samplers.


Quality Assurance for the California Regional PM10/PM2.5 Air Quality Study (CRPAQS) and the Central California Ozone Study (CCOS)
The California Regional PM10/PM2.5 Air Quality Study (CRPAQS) was a multi-year program of meteorological and air quality monitoring, emission inventory development, data analysis, and air quality simulation modeling with an overall budget of more than $25 million. Monitoring for CRPAQS occurred between November 1999 and February 2001. Taking advantage of the CRPAQS effort, a second study, the Central California Ozone Study (CCOS) was conducted during the summer of 2000. The major objective of CCOS was to characterize conditions over the complete summer period, with an emphasis on periods with high ozone levels, using both project-specific data and routine observations. T&B Systems personnel were responsible for managing the external quality assurance program for the entire measurement and data processing effort for both studies. Included in the effort were extensive surface and upper air meteorological audits of a wide range of sensors. These sensors included standard surface measurements and a wide range of radar wind and RASS profilers, sodars and rawinsonde systems. An extensive air quality monitoring network was also established, with many sites operating state-of-the-art and prototype air monitoring equipment. For the two studies, over 30 meteorological monitoring sites (surface and upper air), 110 air quality monitoring sites, and 5 aircraft were audited. Combined, over 700 monitoring and measurement systems were audited, many of them twice during the study. T&B personnel conducted 90% of the audits. Sponsored by the State of California Air Resources Board.


Field Project Management Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 1992
T&B Systems provided the technical direction for a regional ozone field study which entailed measurements from ground and aircraft and which included upper air meteorological measurements during periods of elevated ozone levels. We coordinated all phases of the study, including translating meteorological/air quality forecasts into operational "go" or "no go" decisions, determining the aircraft sampling routes based on regional meteorology and real-time air quality measurements, and coordinating surface and aircraft measurements.


Air Quality Monitoring Study San Joaquin Valley, California, 1990
As part of perhaps the most comprehensive set of meteorological and air quality measurements ever taken, T&B Systems designed, established, and operated a network of 15 upper-air meteorological sounding sites covering more than 7,500 square miles. About 1,700 balloon-borne instrument packages measuring temperature, humidity, pressure, and winds aloft were released. Atmospheric samplings in the 15-site network were taken simultaneously as often as every three hours during air pollution episodes.


Air Quality Modeling Study Cloverdale, California, 1991
T&B Systems helped a small, growing city in Sonoma County develop a planned approach for housing growth that would meet environmental guidelines. The city already exceeded California's inhalable particulate matter (PM10) ambient air quality standards several days each year. We installed two additional PM 10 measurement sites, and selected and validated a PM10 dispersion model which could determine the impact of estimated emissions from each planned development project. This method has enabled the local planners to work with air pollution control authorities to ensure growth proceeds with acceptable environmental impacts.


Atmospheric Tracer Study Gray's Harbor, Washington, 1992
When the performance of a dispersion model was deemed critical to estimating the health effects of a toxic waste source, T&B Systems performed atmospheric tracer tests to validate the model results. We sampled and analyzed ambient air for tracer material at fixed and mobile locations downwind of tracer release sites. This information, combined with meteorological data which we measured in the testing area, was used to determine pollutant dilution and validate the dispersion model calculations.


Surface Meteorological Monitoring Shasta National Forest, California, 1991
When baseline meteorological monitoring was required in a potential geothermal power generation field, T&B Systems installed, maintained, and retrieved data from meteorological stations which measured temperature, humidity, wind direction and speed, insolation, and precipitation. Because the sites were remotely located in a national forest, the equipment had to be reliable, self-contained, and unobtrusive. Even after the data was subjected to rigorous quality assurance checking, the capture rate was greater than 99.9 percent.


Specialized Weather Forecasting The Geysers, California, Ongoing
For more than a decade, T&B Systems has provided specialized weather forecasts to several clients in the Geysers Geothermal Development Area. Our weather forecasts enable geothermal operators to schedule steam releases, which are a standard part of geothermal operations, to coincide with ideal dispersion conditions, and thus satisfy permit requirements of the local air pollution control districts.


Environmental Site Assessment Santa Rosa, California, 1991
When a small business in a light industrial area applied for a loan to purchase property, the lender required a Phase 1 Environmental Site Assessment. The study revealed twelve leaking underground fuel tanks and an underground solvent contamination plume with the 2000-foot radius study area. Due to the hydrogeology of the area, an adverse impact upon the value or intended use of the property was deemed unlikely. Four oil spills resulting in soil contamination on the study site required remediation before the loan was approved.


Maricopa County APCD -- Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Consulting Services, 1991
While with AeroVironment, Mr. Bush managed and provided services to assist Maricopa County in Arizona with bringing their air quality monitoring network into full compliance with Environmental Protection Agency requirements. The project started with a complete systems audit of all monitoring sites and an audit of network procedures. Recommendations were then made for equipment to upgrade the existing sites and for methods to upgrade the QA/QC program. Mr. Bush was also responsible for providing recommendations for future monitoring network expansion, with the principal goal of determining whether the County’s 10-station CO monitoring network adequately characterized the greater-Phoenix area. This was accomplished through a review of existing monitoring, modeling, population and traffic data