Past Projects:

Recent & Current Projects:

Gay & Robinson Energy Plantation PSD Monitoring
T&B Systems recently established an air quality monitoring station on the island of Kauai designed to comply with USEPA established guidelines for the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) for a planned 20 mW power plant using biofuel produced from the Gay & Robinson 50,000 acre sugar cane plantation. Measurables include oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, surface winds, relative humidity, delta temperature, and a sodar that provides three-component winds at 5 meter increments from near surface to projected plume height. All data is transmitted to T&B Systems where is posted on the internet in real time and quality checked daily.

Southwest Desert / Las Vegas Ozone Transport Study (SLOTS)
During the summer of 2007, an ozone transport and dispersion study is being conducted through the coordinated efforts of Clark County, Nevada, the State of California Air Resources Board, and the National Park Service (NPS). T&B Systems is the lead contractor for the program and is responsible for coordinating measurements made by all parties, as well as specific measurements they will make to meet the study objectives. These study objectives include:
  • Promote cooperation and information exchange between federal and state/local agencies in characterizing ozone air pollution during field studies for the 2007 summer season.
  • Improve our understanding of the role of transport of pollutants into Clark County, including emissions from wildfires, and the impact of these pollutants on observed ozone concentrations in Clark County.
  • Generate a database to support current and future air quality planning and regulatory programs for ozone in accordance with the federal Clean Air Act and U.S. EPA requirements and guidelines.
  • Identify criteria and procedures for determining when observed ozone concentrations should be flagged because of exceptional events (e.g., wildfires) and the appropriate tools for developing a demonstration that provides a justification for data exclusion from regulatory considerations.
To support this monitoring program, T&B Systems is conducting the following measurements:
  • Multiple aircraft to document ozone formation and transport, with an emphasis on understanding the role of wildfires.
  • Surface measurements of winds and ozone in areas not currently monitored.
  • Upper air measurements of winds using sodars at the Jean, Nevada airport and in Mountain Pass, California.
  • Upper air measurements of winds using balloon borne rawinsondes using a mobile monitoring laboratory.
  • Upper air measurements of winds, temperature and humidity at the North Las Vegas airport using a miniSodar, radar wind profiler and a profiling radiometer.

Upper Green Winter Ozone Study (UGWOS)
During the winter of 2006, a major field study was conducted in the Upper Green River Valley to characterize the origin and fate of unusually high ozone levels that have been observed during February and March. Ozone formation in the Upper Green River Basin is unusual in that the highest concentrations have been recorded during the late winter and early spring (February to April) when sun angles are relatively low and temperatures are generally below freezing. This is in stark contrast to ozone exceedances in other areas, which occur during the warm summer months when abundant solar radiation and high temperatures act to increase precursor emissions and enhance the atmospheric reactions that result in ozone formation near the earth's surface (i.e., within the planetary boundary layer). In addition, the Upper Green River Basin is a rural area with a limited mix of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) needed for ozone production.

Due to the pressing need to manage ozone air quality in the Upper Green River Basin and the limited amount of information currently available about the nature and causes of these unusual events, ENVIRON, T&B Systems and Meteorological Solutions, under the auspices of the Wyoming DEQ, conducted a comprehensive field study during the 2007 late winter - early spring season. Data from this field study is being used to develop a conceptual model of ozone formation. The conceptual model will be used along with the field data to develop accurate meteorological and air quality numerical simulations of the ozone events. Both the conceptual and numerical models will in turn be used to develop effective air quality management strategies needed to adequately protect public health and the environment in accordance with applicable State and Federal laws.

The field study consisted of the following major elements:
  • Daily operational forecasts
  • Continuous measurements of surface meteorology at 8 sites, and radar wind profiler/RASS/miniSODAR measurements
  • During select periods additional surface ozone at 8 sites, ozonesondes, tethered balloon ozone measurements, aircraft measurements, and VOC and carbonyl sampling.

Clark County Ozone SIP
T&B Systems assembled a Team that brought together the resources required for all aspects of the preparation of an ozone SIP. Members included staff of T&B Systems, Envair, and Meszler Engineering Services; Environ, DRI, and a number of associates. The Technical Support Document, in which the various elements of the SIP were discussed in detail, included monitoring network description, local and regional trends in ozone and ozone precursors, emissions inventories—both current and future years--, model performance evaluations, and ozone control strategies.

Maricopa Association of Governments PM10 Source Attribution and Deposition Study
T&B Systems and Sierra Research, under the auspices of MAG is performing a field and analysis study to address the identification of regions with high PM concentrations with a focus on identifying, to the extent possible, source regions that may be emitting PM that is impacting the air monitoring stations in and around the Salt River Basin. The field portion of the study was completed during the late-fall/early-winter of 2006.

T&B Systems employed a blend of monitoring systems that can measure the spatial distribution of particulate matter in and around the Salt River basin with a focus on identifying the source areas that can contribute to the observed loading at the existing monitoring sites were established and operated by T&B Systems. The field monitoring was performed during a one-month effort that included an aerosol lidar, portable size fractionating aerosol measurement equipment, and mobile van sampling of airborne. Along with the measurement program was a quality assurance (QA) program to independently assess the performance of the measurement equipment used by both the project team and the ADEQ monitors as well as the data processing and validation procedures used in the project data collection effort.

Clark County Regional Ozone & Precursor Study
The Clark County Department of Air Quality and Environmental Management (DAQEM) contracted T&B Systems, Inc. to design and conduct a program to collect data necessary for the characterization and understanding of tropospheric ozone in Clark County. The program is now referred to as the Clark County Regional Ozone and Precursor Study or CCROPS. The field monitoring portion of the study was conducted during the 2005 ozone season from May through August.

The program was designed to meet the following objectives:
  • Obtain a set of meteorological and air quality measurements that will increase our understanding of the origin of high ambient ozone and precursor levels in Clark County.
  • Determine if the current Clark County air quality and meteorological network is adequate to define the regional peak ozone concentrations.
  • Obtain a set of ambient measurements of a known quality that can be used to validate meteorological and air quality numerical models.
  • Generate a database that can support current and future SIP development.
  • On the basis of what is learned from this ozone study, provide specific recommendations on future research programs to support air quality modeling for ozone.
Much of the design of the network for the 2005 ozone study was based on analysis of ozone data collected for the period 2000 through 2003, including detailed analysis of ten case studies. This information was summarized during the Clark County Ozone Characterization Study conducted as a prelude to CCROPS.

The surface air quality network was enhanced by the establishment and operations of the following measurements:
  • Ten (10) supplemental ozone monitoring stations using EPA-designated equivalent ozone analyzers and meteorology.
  • Thirteen (13) sites, also operated by T&B Systems, consisting of portable samplers operated from batteries with the data recorded on self-contained data loggers. Because of their unique design, the instruments could be cost-effectively operated in virtually any location. The siting of the saturation ozone network concentrated on locations where ozone was suspected to be high.
  • CeCert equipped two DAQEM measurement sites with analyzers that specifically measured the ozone precursor NOy, nitric acid, NO2, and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). One site was near primary emissions (JD Smith), and the other was generally downwind of primary emissions (Joe Neal).
  • Ozone precursors of VOC were measured by DRI Reno. Canisters were exposed at three sites, Jean, Joe Neal, and JD Smith during select periods.

Measurements of meteorology and air quality aloft were made using a variety of methods and participants. These included:
  • A radar wind profiler and mini-Sodar located at the North Las Vegas airport and operated by DRI continuously during the field study.
  • Three standard sodars, capable of measuring winds up to 600 m, located at Jean, Floyd Lamb State Park, and the Las Vegas Speedway and operated by DRI continuously during the field study.
  • Balloon-borne measurements of temperature, RH, and winds (rawinsonde) and ozone (ozonesonde) from the North Las Vegas airport by T&B Systems,
  • Aircraft measurements of temperature and ozone during select periods by T&B Systems.
  • Rawinsondes at Jean during select periods by NOAA/SORD.
  • Winds aloft (pibal) measurements in the foothills of the Las Vegas Valley during select periods by NOAA/SORD.

Central California Ozone Study (CCOS): Diagnostic Evaluation of Meteorological Model Performance
T&B Systems was tasked to provide an independent evaluation of the model performance that focuses on meteorological features identified in earlier investigations based on diagnostic analyses. The meteorological features addressed therein for model characterization are those we consider to be critical to the active atmospheric transport and dispersion processes influencing ozone disposition. These include diurnal volume fluxes, nocturnal jet and eddy structure, flow from the coast through the Carquinez Strait and the bifurcation of the flow as it enters the Central Valley of California.

Measurements from the 2,000 ft tower at Walnut Grove provided an opportunity to examine model-derived ozone levels aloft as well as ambient temperature and winds. Comparison between the models and measurements were particularly interesting because these measurements were not used for any input to the MMS or CAMx models. Likewise, rawinsonde measurements made during CCOS that were not used as input to MM5 provided another independent check of model performance.

The MM5 output used for the bulk of this evaluation was produced by NOAA. These runs were made in July 2004 with FDDA. This particular set of output was selected for evaluation as it was also employed in the SIP modeling. A follow-up examination was conducted with newer (September 2006) runs, also by NOAA, which incorporated some technical enhancements and additional data sets. A limited examination of MM5 runs for a 1999 episode was also undertaken.

Central California Ozone Study (CCOS) Analyses: Evaluatation of Meteorological Model Performance
T&B Systems has recently embarked on a study for the San Joaquin Valleywide Air Pollution Study Agency to evaluate the performance of the meteorological numerical model being utilized in CCOS. The CCOS modeling contractors have developed a variety of methods to evaluate model performance, primarily grid-based statistics comparing diagnostic and prognostic model outputs. Additionally, probing tools have been developed to identify causes of poor performance and devising appropriate methods to improve results. As a parallel effort, we are performing an independent evaluation of the model performance that focuses on meteorological features identified in the report by Lehrman et al (2003). The same team of investigators that conducted that analyses are being utilized in this study as well. A major challenge for the meteorological component, MM5 or CALMET, to CAMX is to accurately portray critical meteorological features identified by Lehrman et al in their diagnostic analyses of the CCOS 2000 meteorological measurements. The meteorological features addressed herein for model characterization are those we consider to be critical to the active atmospheric transport and dispersion processes influencing ozone disposition. Those include diurnal volume fluxes, nocturnal jet and eddy structure, as well as regional horizontal wind shears. Our approach is to subject MM5 model output to the same diagnostic and descriptive analyses as did Lehrman team.

Ozone and Meteorological Monitoring on Walnut Grove Tower
T&B Systems is monitoring simultaneous measurements of ozone and meteorological variables at five levels from the surface to 1600 feet on a 2000-foot television transmission tower 20 miles south of Sacramento, California. Monitoring is being conducted using long sample lines leading to each level and a unique measurement method using a single analyzer to sequentially make measurements at all five levels. Sponsored by the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District / California Air Resources Board

Glass Mountain H2S Monitoring for Proposed Geothermal Power Plant
Background ambient measurements of H2S were required in an remote, environmentally sensitive area within a National Forest, and nearby to a future geothermal power generation facility. T&B Systems integrated a Jerome ambient H2S monitor with meteorological sensors and data system capable of continously collecting information. The complete system was mounted on a 10-meter tower and operated exclusively on solar-generated power. The site equipment operated nearly flawlessly resulting in a validated data recovery rate of greater than 90 percent.

Fugitive Dust Monitoring
T&B Systems is currently conducting two fugitive dust monitoring program; one in southern California for a power plant modernization project, and one in northern California for a waste water treatment plant site remediation. Upwind and downwind monitoring of particulate matter and ambient volatile organic compounds (VOC), and a meteorological station are required in both programs. One program requires additional personal particulate sampling (PPS) as well.

Audits of the Surface and Upper-Air Meteorological Monitoring Network PAMS and Regulatory Monitoring Stations
T&B Systems is conducting systems and performance audits of the PAMS monitoring network and selected monitoring stations throughout the South Coast Air Basin. A total of 12 stations will be audited that include a full complement of surface and upper-air meteorological monitoring equipment. Surface instrumentation will include traditional sensors for measuring wind speed, wind direction, temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation, solar and ultraviolet radiation as well as newer sonic anemometers. Upper air instrumentation will include 915 MHz radar wind profilers, Radio Acoustic Sounding Systems (RASS) and sodars. Sponsored by the South Coast Air Quality Management District.

Routine External Quality Assurance Audits
T&B Systems conducts routine quality assurance audits for several air quality Districts. Currently, T&B Systems conducts quarterly audits of seven PSD air quality monitoring sites operated for the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District and of the South Coast Air Quality Management District's 20-site PM2.5 network.

Tangguh LNG Plant and Facilities EIR
T&B Systems recently completed an environmental air quality and noise impact analysis (ANDAL) for a grass-roots LNG facility proposed in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. This project is a joint effort by BP-Indonesia and Pertamina. The project area is in an undeveloped and pristine setting, sparsely populated with no roads and only limited access via light airplane and boat. As a consequence, the project is very high-profile and subject to international scrutiny from a variety of agencies and groups. The project is expected to comply with both Indonesian and International air quality and noise regulations. Extensive modeling and analysis of impacts due to exploration, construction, operations of the LNG processing plant and related infrastructure (offshore platforms, airstrip, marine facility, and population relocation) were required. The Tannguh LNG Integrated AMDAL was approved by the Indonesian Ministry of Environment in October 2002.